The cost of production of tea estimates are based on a survey carried out jointly by the Department of Census and Statistics and the Tea Commissioner's Division - Sri Lanka Tea Board.
Sri Lanka Tea Board was established on 1st January 1976 by amalgamating the Tea Control Department, Tea Export Commissioner’s Department, Ceylon tea Propaganda Board and the Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka under the Sri Lanka Tea Board law No. 14 of 1975 as amended by Act No. 17 of 1985, No. 14 of 1990, No. 29 of 2003 and No. 44 of 2006.
In the year 1994 the Tea Research Institute separated from the Sri Lanka Tea Board law and came under the Tea Research Board established under the Tea Research Board Act. No. 52 of 1993.
The Primary objectives of the Sri Lanka Tea Board under the above act are the Development of the Tea Industry in Sri Lanka, promotion of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Tea globally, implementing Regulatory requirements of the tea industry. The major regulatory activities of the tea industry covering production, cultivating and replanting, establishment of tea factories, their operation, regulate Colombo Tea Auction, maintaining quality standards of tea, packaging and warehousing requirements etc framed both under the Sri Lanka Tea Board Law and the Tea Control Act No. 51 of 1957 and the Tea (Tax and Control of Exports) Act No. 16 of 1959.
Tea is grown in the cold climate - usually in the hill country. In Sri Lanka, Tea plantations which are called tea estates are clustered into three regions according to their elevation from mean sea level. The teas coming from estates located in the regions of the highest elevation is called High grown tea or Up-country tea which is famous as the best tea in the world. Low grown tea also grows in cold climates especially in the southern hilly region where the elevation is not as high as of the Up-country. The three kinds of teas thus produced by Sri Lanka have their own characteristics such as flavour, color, texture etc. specific to the elevation.
A tea estate is normally managed by a superintendent who has to report to a private owner (provided the estate is owned by a private owner) or a plantation company handling multiple estates. Some estates have their own factories, those who do not own a factory supply their green leaf to a nearby factory for processing where they are paid at a weekly rate declared by the government taking the market conditions into into account. The teas purchased from outside estates by a factory are called Bought leaf.
The number of workers employed in a large tea estate can well exceed thousand. Some of them are resident in the estate. The activities that the workers perform are monitored on a daily basis such as plucking, pruning, fertilizing and so forth. The cost of production of made tea is a good indicator of measuring the performance of an estate. Therefore all costs are closely monitored. To facilitate this, a special kind of ledger called the CHECKROLL is used in the offices of the factory and the estates. This is like a day book. The estate can decide on the type of checkrolls they are maintaining in order to simplify the recording of various types of estate costs as well as the tasks assigned to workers and the material quantities utilized.
Some examples of different checkrolls are daily wages checkroll, fertilizer checkroll, factory process checkroll etc. The daily wages checkroll has a name column and thirty one columns for each month. In the name column the worker's name is recorded. Any task he is assigned to on a particular day is recorded with a task code in the day's column against his name. Each activity has a task code. At the end of the month the costs are analyzed by the task codes to obtain payables and to work out accounting entries.
Kind of Data
Administrative records data [adm]
Unit of Analysis
V1.0: Full edited dataset, for internal DPD Use
The purpose of this operation is to determine the Cost of production of Made Tea per kilo for the year per each factory categorized into High, Mid and Low grown areas.
This scope includes :
Extent of plantation under Bearing and non-bearing by V.P and Seedling
Quantity of tea produced in factory categorized by estate leaf and bought leaf
Expenditure incurred during the year on
Upkeep and cultivation
Marketing, Management and other expenses
National Coverage of Tea estates under the ownership of Sri Lanka State Plantations Corporation, Janatha Estate Development Board, Cooperatives, Other tea manufacturing organizations and private estates.
This data collection operation covered all tea factories in the High grown, Mid grown and Low grown elevations in Sri Lanka.
Producers and sponsors
Ministry of Plantation Industries
Sri Lanka Tea Board
Source of funds
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Mail Questionnaire [mail]
Each estate / factory has its own office. The main register in recording all estate activities such as routine expenses, daily labour hours, etc is the checkroll. The estate / factory staff record the information in the checkroll. At the end of the month total figures are posted from the checkroll to the ledgers.
The purpose of the questionnaire is to collect data pertaining to the cost of production of made tea by each factory. Therefore the quantity of tea produced and cost incurred were important.
The quantity of tea produced depend on two figures viz green leaf produced by the estate if the factory is the property of the estate and the bought leaf supplied to the factory by the registered outside estate owners.
The extent of the tea planted in the estate is need.
Cost of production of tea includes the following costs:
Replanting costs (uprooting, conservation of soil, planting materials and planting, fertilizer, weeding)
Upkeep and cultivation (labour, materials/tools, transport)
Green leaf cost (estate leaf and bought leaf)
General charges (staff, admin charges, marketing and management charges)
Quantity of tea produced by the factory
A simple form has been administered to collect the information as this operation is an administrative record keeping activity. The data filled in the form must be in consistence with the figures in the books maintained by the estate / factory.
Against each cost item, a unit cost column is provided in the questionnaire. This has to be computed by the estate / factory staff. The unit cost figure helps the staff to know whether the cost figures they provide are consistent.
Under the Statistical ordinance, micro data cannot be released with identifications for public use. Procedures are in place to ensure that information relating to any particular individual person, household or undertaking will be kept strictly confidential and will not be divulged to external parties. Information on individual or individual Household/establishment will not be divulged or published in such a form that will facilitate the identification of any particular person or establishment as the data have been collected under the Census/Statistical ordinance, according to which the information at individual level cannot be divulged and such information is strictly
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the Department or among data from the Department and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the Department will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the Department
The following rules apply to micro data released by the Department of Census and Statistics.
• Only the requests of Government Institutions, Recognized Universities, Students, and selected international agencies are entertained. However, the Data users are required to strictly adhere to the terms stipulated in the agreement form.
• All the data requests should be made to Director General (DG) of the DCS as the sole authority of releasing data is vested with the DG of the DCS. The DCS of Sri Lanka reserves sole right to approve or reject any data request made depending on the confidential nature of the data set and intended purpose of the study or analysis.
• Requests for micro data should be made through the agreement form designed by DCS for this purpose (Form D.R.1). The agreement form should be filled in triplicate and the Study/project proposal should accompany the filled agreement form. If requests are made for the micro data of more than one survey, a separate agreement should be signed.
• If the data request is from a student a letter from the respective Dept. Head/Dean/Supervisor, recommending the issue of data, should also be accompanied.
• If the request is approved only 25% of the data file is released at the first stage. The release of the total data file is considered only after reviewing the draft report prepared on the basis of the 25% sample data file.
• The released Data file should be used only for the specific study/Analysis mentioned in the agreement form and shall not be used for any other purpose without the prior approval of the Director General of the DCS. Moreover, Copies of the micro-data file, obtained from the DCS, shall not be given to anyone else without the prior written approval of the Director General of the DCS.
• The draft report of the Study/Analysis should be submitted to the DCS and the concurrence of the DG of the DCS, should be obtained before publishing it. Once published, a copy of the final report should be submitted to the DCS.
[Department : The Department of Census and Statistics (DCS)]
Department of Census and Statistics, Cost of Production of Made Tea per Kilo - 1986 [CPT1986], Version 1.0 of the internal use dataset August 2009, provided by the National Data Archive, Data Processing Division, www.statistics.gov.lk"